**BSc in Physics: Final Exam Topics**

## Physics

**Fundamentals of mechanics**Coordinates, velocity, acceleration. Newton’s equation of motion. Momentum, angular momentum, energy. Work and power.

**Fundamentals of electrodynamics**The fundamental equations of electrodynamics: Maxwell’s equations in differential and integral form. Gauss’s theorem, Sokes-theorem. The laws of induction. Continuity equation, charge conservation. Laws of stationary currents.

**Extensive and intensive thermodynamic quantities**Empirical temperature, equation of state for an ideal gas. Heat expansion. Classification of state variables. The laws of thermodynamics. Entropy. Heat engines, refrigerators

**Fundamental concepts of nuclear physics**The charcteristic features of the nucleus (mass, density, binding energy, spin), models of the atomic nucleus. Radioactivity, fission and fusion of nuclei. Nuclear reactor, nuclear power plant.

**Vibrations**Harmonic, anharmonic, damped oscillations, driven oscillators, resonance, the relevant differential equations, examples in mechanics, and electrodynamics (springs, pendulums, RLC circuits)

**Waves**The wave equation. The wave function for plane and shperical waves, Dispersion. Standing waves, The Doppler effect.

**Electrostatics, magnetostatics**The fundamental equations of electrostatics. The work of the electric force, electrostatic potential. Capacitors, capacity. Characteristics of static magnetic fields, forces in static magnetic fields. The magnetic field of an infinitely long straight wire.

**Fundamentals of special relativity**Postulates of special relativity. Measuring the length of moving objects, length contraction. Time dilatation, the twin paradox. Moving particles’ clock. Addition of velocities. Relativistic momentum and energy.

**Postulates of quantum mechanincs**Observable quantities and operators. Expected value and standard deviation, uncertainty principle. Time-dependent and time-independent Schrödinger equation, stationary states. The meaning of the wave function.

**The atomic structure**Dual nature of light: light as electromagnetic wave, photoeffect, Compton scattering. Atomic models: the Bohr model, the atomic model of quantum mechanics. The structure of Mendeleev’s periodic table.

**Optics**The speed of light. Reflection and refraction. Imaging of mirrors and lenses. Projectors microscopes, telescopes. The human eye. Diffraction on a single slit and on gratings.

## Informatics

- Fundamentals of digital electronics (logical functions, circuits, registers)
- Structure and operation of computers (history, processors, buses, memories, architectures)
- Computer peripherals (storage media, input and output devices, communication channels)
- Operating systems (Their function, types, elements, operational issues)
- Layered structure of computer networks
- Relational databases (data models, normal forms, implementation: elements of SQL)
- Algorithms (search, ordering, graph)
- Imperative languages (basic elements, their implementations from machine code to high level languages)
- Object oriented programming (inheritance, polymorphism, event-driven codes)
- Programming (implementation of complex codes, using funcion libraries, development environments)